Just before the dawn of World War II, the Royal Air Force designated six flight instruments that would be installed in every single RAF aircraft. These guidelines were adopted by commercial and civil aviation manufacturers alike and came to be known as the “six pack.” The six pack consists of six instruments providing the pilot with constantly updating information of speed, altitude, ascension/descension, attitude, heading, as well as turning/banking. The individual instruments are the airspeed indicator (ASI), altimeter, vertical speed indicator (VSI), attitude indicator, heading indicator, and turn coordinator.

The first six pack instrument of the six pack, the airspeed indicator, is a tool that uses the pressure differential in a static pitot tube to measure and display the aircraft’s speed. A needle on the gauge points to the current indicated air speed. Standardized color-coded markings denote different levels of air speed like normal, caution, and do-not-exceed. The attitude indicator, sometimes referred to as the artificial horizon, uses an internal gyroscope to represent the aircraft’s attitude relative to the horizon, helping the pilot maintain straight and level flight.

The altimeter uses barometric pressure obtained from the static port to display the aircraft’s altitude above sea level. Because barometric pressure can change drastically due to environmental factors, altimeters feature an adjustment knob to pinpoint the pressure in the local atmosphere. Like the attitude indicator, the turn coordinator also uses an internal gyroscope, however in this case the gyro is used to display the aircraft’s roll rate and rate of turn.

The heading indicator is used to show the current compass direction that the aircraft is moving in. Using a 360 degree compass, the heading indicator shows headings in increments of five degrees. An adjustment knob turns the internal heading indicator compass to align with the aircraft’s magnetic compass. The final component of the six pack is the vertical speed indicator. This is an instrument that measures the internal pressure differential and uses that information to provide a visual representation of the pace at which the aircraft is climbing or descending. A chambered diaphragm connected to the static port expands or contracts relative to changes in altitude, causing the dial to move and indicate the rate at which the aircraft is climbing or descending.

At Veritable Aviation, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the six pack instruments as well as a huge collection of unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@veritableaviation.com or call us at 1-503-374-0340.



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Integrated circuits, also called microelectronic circuits, microchips, or just “chips,” are assemblies of electronic components fabricated as a single unit, in which miniaturized active devices like transistors and diodes, and passive devices like capacitors and resistors, as well as their interconnections, are built onto a thin substrate of semiconductor material, usually silicon. The resulting circuit is a small “chip,” which can be as small as a few square centimeters, while the individual components can be microscopic in size.

Integrated circuits have their origins with the invention of the transistor in 1947 by William B. Shockley’s team at the American Telephone and Telegraph Company’s Bell Laboratories. Shockley’s team found that in the right circumstances, electrons form barriers at the surface of certain crystals, and discovered how to control the flow of electricity through the crystal by manipulating this barrier. Controlling electron flow through a crystal enabled the creation of a device that could perform electrical operations like signal amplification, which were previously performed by vacuum tubes. This lead to the creation of electronic devices called solid-state electronics, which are sturdier, easier to work with, more reliable, and less expensive than vacuum tubes.

In 1958, Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor independently came to the same conclusion of how to reduce circuit size. By arranging thin paths of metal (usually aluminum or copper) on the same piece of material as their devices, they created wires for electrons to flow, allowing an entire circuit to be “integrated” onto a single piece of material. Thus, they are called integrated circuits, and can contain hundreds of thousands of individual transistors on a single piece of material the size of a pea.

There are several basic types of integrated circuits. Analog, or linear circuits, use only a few components, and are some of the simplest integrated circuits. They typically used in devices that collect signals from the environment, or send them back out the environment. Microphones, for example, convert fluctuating sounds into electrical signals of varying voltage. Microphones, for example, convert fluctuating sounds into electrical signals of varying voltage. An analog circuit modifies the signal, such as by amplifying it or filtering out unwanted noise. The signal is then fed back to a loudspeaker, which reproduces the tones picked up by the microphone. Another typical use for analog circuits is to control devices that respond to changes in the environment, such as a temperature sensor for a thermostat.

A digital circuit, meanwhile, accepts only voltages of a given specific value. Circuits that use only two circuits are known as binary circuits, and have an “on” and “off” state used to represent 1 and 0, or true and false. These elements are the basis for binary coding, which is the principle upon which all modern digital computers and associated devices function.

At Veritable Aviation, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the integrated circuits parts and systems for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@veritableaviation.com or call us at 1-503-374-0340.


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From inflight entertainment systems, to cockpit instruments and wing lights, the aircraft electrical system is involved in some facet. Aircraft electrical systems are large, self-contained networks of components that power an aircraft. Let’s take a look at how these systems operate.

Where Does the Electricity Come From?

Electricity is produced by either generators or alternators. Typically, an Auxiliary Power Unit or Ram Air Turbine supply power to the generator. On average, generators output around 115-120V/400HZ AC 28V DC or 137 DC.

How is Electricity Transmitted or Converted?

Depending on the aircraft requirements, power can be modified using transformers, rectifiers, or inverters. A Transformer is a device that allows AC voltage to be increased or decreased. Rectifiers convert AC to DC power; Inverters convert DC to AC. The more complex the aircraft, the more likely it will use a combination of AC and DC power and may require transformer rectifier units.

Distribution Buses are integral to the functionality of an electrical system, as they direct electricity to various components of the aircraft. Each unit has a circuit breaker so that the entire bus does not fuse. A benefit of busses is that a mechanic can pinpoint and isolate an electrical problem, rather than having if affect the entire electrical system.

A portion of the electricity produced by the generator is sent to the aircraft battery. The battery is used in aircraft start up or as a back-up power supply if the main system fails. A static inverter is included in the assembly In the event of a system failure, so the AC bus can be powered by the backup battery.

How is the Electrical System Monitored?

There are various gauges and systems in place to ensure that the electrical system is closely monitored for any irregularities. Circuit breakers are installed to cut off any malfunctioning areas from the rest of the system; reducing the risk of an all-out power failure. Inside the cockpit, the pilot has numerous warning systems that will flash or light up if there is a system problem detected. For example, there is an indicator for generator failure, which the pilot can instantly react to by referencing the aircraft manual. In accordance with FAA regulations, each electrical component must go through rigorous testing during maintenance checks. Once more, an aircraft must have additional components such as standby flight instruments illuminated aisles in the case of an emergency.

At Veritable Aviation, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the aircraft electrical connectors and electrical connector parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@veritableaviation.com or call us at +1-503-374-0552.


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Bearings are omnipresent components that handle rolling motions. Designed to reduce friction and transfer loads and motions, bearings are a crucial part of all kinds of machinery.

In a sleeve or plain bearing, the axle and bearing move in opposite directions on a sliding surface. In contrast, the two components in a rolling bearing that move towards each other (the inner and outer rings) are separated by rolling elements. This design generates significantly less friction than a bearing, which increases reliability and extends the lifetime of the parts used.

Bearings can transmit loads in a radial direction or an axial direction (thrust) and in many cases, there is a combination of both radial and axial loads to transfer. Rolling-element bearings consist of these components:

  • A set of two rings, inner and outer, with raceways
  • A set of rolling elements, either balls or rollers
  • A cage to keep rolling elements separated and helps guide motion

The inner and outer rings of a rolling-element bearing are typically made from high-purity chrome-alloy steel. This material is hard enough for high load ratings and a long service life. Raceways are hardened, ground, and honed into their surfaces for the rollers. Some rings will be made from ceramics or plastics: while they cannot withstand high temperatures, they are lightweight, which is useful for sectors like the aviation and automobile industries, where weight is a serious concern.

Rolling elements take the form of balls, rollers, cones, or needles, They are usually made from steel as well, but like rings, can be made from ceramic, plastic, or other metals as well. The rolling elements roll on the raceways of the rings and are separated and guided by the cage. The cage itself is typically made from steel, brass, or plastic. Solid-metal cages are made with machining techniques, while pressed metal cages from folded sheet metal. Plastic cages can be machined from solid plastic, or injection molded.

Ball bearings are the most commonly used type of rolling-element bearing, due to how easy it is to manufacture and maintain them, and the fact that they are less sensitive to operating conditions than other bearings. They can absorb both radial and axial forces in both directions, and their low torque makes them suitable for high speed operations.

At Veritable Aviation, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the bearings for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@veritableaviation.com.


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There are an estimated 320 miles of cabling and wires on the Airbus A380. Of course, passengers don’t see any of these cables as they are bundled up and discreetly hidden behind seat covers, overhead compartments, and concealed within galley space. This extensive system of wires connects more or less every aspect of the aircraft together. The entertainment system, electrical appliances in the galley, and the electronic equipment in the cockpit all rely upon the interconnectivity of various cables and wires. There are different types of cables each with their capabilities and uses. This blog will detail some of the most common types of wires and cables found in aircraft.

Ethernet Cables

Ethernet cables are standard wires that connect computers to a network. They are designed to connect two different devices and aide communication between the two. A key benefit of using ethernet cables is the stable internet connection they provide. Ethernet cables are used for local area network (LAN) applications and data transmission aboard aircraft. In-Flight Entertainment (IFE) is becoming a standard on commercial aircraft. Ethernet cables are used to deliver the high-speed internet connection needed to supply each seat screen.

Fiber Optic Cables

Fiber optic communication transmit information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber that is marginally thicker than a strand of human hair. Hundreds of thousands of optical fibers are arranged in bundles in optical cables. These cables are protected by an outer layer called a jacket. Fiber optic cables can carry much more information in less time over longer distances than regular copper wire. Bandwidth, the amount of data that can be distributed in a fixed amount of time, is often used as a measure of efficiency for cables. Fiber optics are popular due to their large bandwidth.

Filter Lines

Aircraft are increasingly vulnerable to electromagnetic interference (EMI), which is a disturbance generated by an external source through electromagnetic induction. Filter lines are used in military aircraft to protect against EMI. They protect the signals that the pilots want to receive from his input to control surface without allowing the energy from an external source to interfere.

Though wires and cables are important components of an aircraft, manufacturers are always looking for ways to reduce the amount of cables used or their combined weight. The ongoing trend on aircraft is to take away weight wherever possible. Cables such as fiber optics are popular because they are lightweight. Aircraft technology is constantly evolving therefore requiring rewiring procedures. Maintenance programs such as Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) are aimed at reusing existing wires rather than adding new wires in costly overhaul services. Though not visible to passengers, the system of cables and wires within an aircraft is complex with the maintenance and management being imperative to the working condition of the aircraft. It is no wonder therefore they are often referred to as the nerves of the aircraft.

At Veritable Aviation, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the aircraft cable parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@veritableaviation.com or call us at +1 503-374-0340.


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A variable resistor is a device that has the capacity to adjust electrical resistance. They are typically utilized when working with electrical circuitry as they are able to control different voltages and currents. Variable resistors are user friendly and come with a wiper contact that can be slid up or down the resistance track. The wiper contact position on the resistance track is what determines the true resistance value.

Most resistors are used as rheostats. The electrical current that flows through an electrical circuit is determined by two variables: the amount of voltage applied, and the total resistance of the electrical circuit. When we reduce the circuits resistance, the flow of the electrical current increases. When we increase circuit resistance, the flow of the electrical current will be decreased. If we place the rheostat in an electrical circuit, we are able to control the flow of electric current in the circuit. Rheostats help connect circuits while leaving the resistance track open. Rheostats are used in applications where high voltage is required.

When the edge of the resistor track connects with the inputs of the circuit, it is used as a Electronic potentiometer. All three of the device’s terminals must be used to act as a potentiometer. The potentiometer consists of three terminals in which two are fixed and the other is a variable. The two stationary terminals are connected to both ends of the resistive track while the third terminal adjusts the sliding wiper. The potentiometer is changed when the wiper is moved over the resistive path. Resistance is manually operated to control the flow of the electric current. Potentiometers are used to control the volume in audio equipment and frequency attenuation; they are also used in televisions and computer to control the picture contrast and brightness.

Another type of variable resistor is a thermistor - these devices are used to help gauge temperature. Thermistors allow the flow of electric current to adjust rapidly even with a slight change in temperature. Electronic Thermistors are low cost, small in size, and are easily transportable. They aren’t suitable to use over a wide operating range. The demand for thermistors has increased in recent years as they’ve proven to work accurately and effectively in a wide array of applications.

At Veritable Aviation, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find your variable resistors for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@veritableaviation.com or call us at +1-503-374-0340.


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Turbine engine ignition systems usually operate for a brief period because the combustor only needs an initial spark. Once ignited, the ignition system is switched off and the fuel remains burning. However, there is potential for the engine to flame out— it'll stop burning. Because of this possibility, continuous ignition is used during critical periods, such as during takeoff, landing, and in emergency situations. This is different from a reciprocating engine, in which the sparks are timed to ignite during various times in the operating cycles.

Turbine engines are usually equipped with a high-energy, capacitor-type ignition system. There are two independent ignition units that operate from a common low-voltage electrical power source: the aircraft battery or the permanent magnet generator. The engine turns the generator through the accessory gearbox. The generator produces power any time the engine is turning. The system needs to be capable of creating a high heat intensity spark because these engines operate in various atmospheric conditions. High voltage is supplied to arc across a wide igniter spark gap because of this.

Ignition systems usually consist of two exciter units, two transformers, two intermediate ignition leads, and two high-tension leads— it is designed as a duel, almost redundant, system for the sake of safety. They can also be categorized into low-tension ignition systems and high-tension ignition systems. Low-tension ignition systems are often used because of the weight and size tradeoff; although high tension ignition systems often have a high service life and the igniter tips erode slower.

Turbine engines are cooled by fan airflow. The air flows through different components of the system, including the ignition system, and returns to the engine nacelle. It’s important to cool the system down, especially during continuous ignition.

At Veritable Aviation, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the ignition system parts you need, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@veritableaviation.com or call us at 1-503-374-0340.


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There really is no right or wrong answer to the question of “which is better, solid state relays or electromechanical relays?” You’ll hear different things with different reasons, depending on who you ask. It’s best to learn the differences between the two and make that judgement for yourself.

In general, a relay is a power switching solution that is used to allocate power without manually opening and closing the switch. It’s a gatekeeper of sorts for larger electrical signals, using a small electrical signal in order to switch the power on and off. There are many different types of relays-thermal, reed, electromechanical, solid state, and hybrid-of which, two are the most popular, electromechanical and solid state.

An electromechanical relay (EMR) uses electromagnetic forces form a low-power input signal to physically move a part and connect two contacts in order to complete a circuit that contains a high-power signal. It can lead to internal arcing and take a relatively long time to move, but it is useful in many situations due to their simplicity, lower cost, and thermal management.

A solid-state relay (SSR) uses low-power signals to generate optical semiconductor signals that transmit and energize the output signal. The input optical signal acts as a “switch” that allows the high-power signal to pass through. There are many types of SSRs, but they all lack moving parts, hence the name “solid state”.

Both EMRs and SSRs can be used in circuits for heating, lighting, motion control, etc. But, when it comes to comparing specs, SSRs, as a newer design, outperforms EMRs in most categories. SSRs are more complex and unable to do any sort of thermal management, thus requiring integrated heat sinks and fans, incurring more costs. But, SSRs are faster, generate minimal electrical disturbances, use less power for higher output, are more resistant to shock and vibration, and are more suitable for more applications, even those in harsher environments.

Veritable Aviation, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, is a premier supplier of reed relays. With a wide variety of parts and components for the aerospace, aviation, and defense industries, and 24/7x365 customer support, we’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts you need, new or obsolete. If you’re interested in a quote, email us at sales@veritableaviation.com or call us at +1-503-374-0340.


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What is the importance of a turbocharger in a plane's engine?. A turbocharger is a vital component for the plane when climbing to a high altitude. Piston driven aircraft rely on the compression of air for combustion. But, because there is less air pressure at higher altitudes, there is less air to compress. This is where the turbocharger comes into play.

The turbocharger allows the aircraft to operate as if it were operating at sea level (normal air pressure). There are 3 main parts to a turbocharger - the turbine, shaft, and compressor. The turbine is driven by exhaust expelled from the engine. The more exhaust produced, the more the turbine spins. The turbine is connected to the compressor via the shaft. The shaft is the connection between the turbine and the compressor. As the turbine spins, the compressor follows. The compressor spins and draws air in, compresses the air, and feeds the air into the engine.

The two supplementary components are the wastegate and intercooler. The wastegate provides a function similar to a relief valve. It is a diversion mechanism, which can be automatic or manually operated. The diversion of exhaust prevents any excessive turbine spinning, which can result in troublesome manifold pressure. The intercooler function may come as no surprise to most, it cools. A lot of heat is generated when air compresses. The combination of the engine and the boosting of the turbocharger, heat is present throughout the engine. The intercooler acts as an air conditioner, cooling the air from the turbocharger to the engine, reducing strain and ensuring that the engine is operating properly.

As stated before, the turbocharger allows piston-driven aircraft to reach desired altitudes. But a turbocharger is only useful if it is in good condition. To get all the parts you need to maintain and repair your turbocharger, visit us a Veritable Aviation.

Veritable Aviation, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, simplifies purchasing, boosting your capabilities and keeping your turbine spinning smoothly. We should always be your first and only stop for all your aircraft rotable and consumable parts. Veritable Aviation is a premier supplier of top aircraft fueling equipment whether new, old, or hard-to-find. If you're interested in requesting a quote, feel free to email us at sales@veritableaviation.com or call us at +1-503-374-0340. We're always available and ready to help, 24/7x365.


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Engines power more than just our cars, they also power aircraft, from the smallest helicopter to the largest planes. Here’s a list of the 12 most powerful aircraft engines in the world based on thrust, power, and total capacity. Engines power more than just our cars, they also power aircraft, from the smallest helicopter to the largest planes. Here's a list of the 12 most powerful engines in the world based on thrust, power, and total capacity.

List of Most Powerful Aircraft Engines

  1. CFM56-7 Series
  2. GE TF39
  3. Progress D-18T
  4. General Electric CF-6
  5. Rolls Royce Trent 700
  6. General Electric GEnx
  7. Rolls Royce Trent 1000
  8. Engine Alliance GP7000
  9. Rolls Royce Trent 900
  10. Rolls Royce Trent XWB
  11. Pratt and Whitney PW4000
  12. General Electric GE90

1. CFM56-7 Series

CFM56-7 Series, with a thrust-to-weight ratio of 3.7:1, debuted in 1995. It has better fuel efficiency and reduced maintenance costs. CFM56-7 Series

2. GE TF39

GE TF39, with a thrust-to-weight ratio of 5.4:1, was the first ever high-bypass turbofan jet engine produced. It also was the first turbofan that introduced 1 ½ stage fan blades with an 8:1 bypass ratio. GE TF39

3. Progress D-18T

Progress D-18T, thrust-to-weight ratio of 5.7:1, is a high bypass turbofan aircraft engine originally specially designed to power heavy transport aircraft. Progress D-18T

4. General Electric CF-6

General Electric CF-6, thrust-to-weight ratio of 5.08:1, is one of GE's most powerful series of high bypass turbofan engines. It has a max thrust of 274 kN. General Electric CF-6

5. Rolls Royce Trent 700

Rolls Royce Trent 700, thrust-to-weight ratio of 51.35 N/kg, is typically used on the Airbus A330. It is a more powerful and heavier engine with a max thrust of 316 kN. Rolls Royce Trent 700

6. General Electric GEnx

General Electric GEnx, thrust-to-weight ratio of 5.15:1, is a high-performance bypass turbofan jet engine with radical composite fan technology. General Electric GEnx

7. Rolls Royce Trent 1000

Rolls Royce Trent 1000, thrust-to-weight ratio of 6.1:1, has a max thrust of 265.3-360.4 kN. Rolls Royce Trent 1000

8. Engine Alliance GP7000

Engine Alliance GP7000, thrust-to-weight ratio of 5.197:1, powers the world's largest passenger airliner, the Airbus A380. Engine Alliance GP7000

9. Rolls Royce Trent 900

Rolls Royce Trent 900, thrust-to-weight ratio of 5.46:1, has a max thrust of 374 kN and is the first of the Trent series with an advanced engine health monitoring system. Rolls Royce Trent 900

10. Rolls Royce Trent XWB

Rolls Royce Trent XWB, thrust-to-weight ratio of 5.25:1, is used on the Airbus A350 XWB with a max thrust of 430 kN. Rolls Royce Trent XWB

11. Pratt and Whitney PW4000

Pratt and Whitney PW4000, thrust-to-weight ratio of 6-7:1, is one of the most powerful of Pratt & Whitney's engines. Pratt and Whitney PW4000

12. General Electric GE90

General Electric GE90, thrust-to-weight ratio of 5.59:1, is based on NASA's own high energy efficient experimental profane. It has a world record-breaking thrust between 330-513 kN. General Electric GE90

These engines are massive feats of mechanical engineering, but they still need constant repairing and maintenance. Here at Veritable Aviation, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we carry all parts and spares for aircraft engines, whether new and current or obsolete and hard-to-find. If you’re interested in a quote for a part, call us now at +1-503-374-0340 or email us at sales@veritableaviation.com.


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